Laboratory 10


Accessibility is a general term used to describe the degree to which a product, device, service, or environment is available to as many people as possible. Accessibility can be viewed as the "ability to access" and possible benefit of some system or entity.

For example the needs that Web accessibility aims to address include: Visual, Motor/Mobility, Auditory, Seizures, Cognitive/Intellectual.

Standards and Initiatives

W3C launched WAI with the task to create guidelines ( WCAG 2.0 ) for making web content accessible to people with disabilities

WebAIM's mission is to expand the potential of the web for people with disabilities.

Section 508 is an American law which is intended to end discrimination against people with disabilities ("equal or equivalent access to everyone").

Internationalization (i18n) and localization (L10n)

Internationalization is the process of designing a software application so that it can be adapted to various languages and regions without engineering changes.

Localization is the process of adapting internationalized software for a specific region or language by adding locale-specific components and translating text.


"Ergonomics (or human factors) is the scientific discipline concerned with the understanding of the interactions among humans and other elements of a system, and the profession that applies theoretical principles, data and methods to design in order to optimize human well being and overall system performance."" according to International Ergonomics Association

There are three areas of interest: Physical Ergonomics, Cognitive Ergonomics and Organizational Ergonomics.

Social Web

With the social web our goal is to "understand the practices, implications, culture, & meaning of the sites, as well as users engagement with them" [Lecture 1: Social Web Introduction (2013) from Lora Aroyo]

Important aspects to be considered:

  • social web platforms
  • data mining, analysis, visualization & reuse across applications
  • user-generated content
  • personalization in Social Web applications
  • security and privacy
  • etc.

See other lecture notes on social web from Lora Aroyo

Lecture 1: Social Web Introduction (2013) from Lora Aroyo

Decentralized social networking platforms: Tent platform and Diaspora.

Using prediction software like PredictionIO -- "an open source prediction server for software developers to create predictive features, such as personalization, recommendation and content discovery."


"Simply defined, crowdsourcing represents the act of a company or institution taking a function once performed by employees and outsourcing it to an undefined (and generally large) network of people in the form of an open call. This can take the form of peer-production (when the job is performed collaboratively), but is also often undertaken by sole individuals. The crucial prerequisite is the use of the open call format and the large network of potential laborers." [source Crowdsourcing as a Model for Problem Solving]

Crowdsourcing platform from Amazon: Amazon Mechanical Turk.

Further Reading:Crowdsourcing User Studies With Mechanical Turk

Case Study

Understanding the ecosystem where human is at the center and how that network of things works together... towards the "Internet of Things"

Connecting from Bassett & Partners on Vimeo.